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Publisher/Editor: W. D. Cheek, Sr. aka "Dr. Rigormortis” _V2N9: October, 1992 


A Journal of VHF-UHF Scanner Technology & Engineering ISSN 1061-9240 

Published at COMMtronics Engineering; PO Box 262478; San Diego, CA 92196; Copyright (c) 1991-2 <A11 Rights Reserved> $4.oo 


When you're having fun.and drags when you're not! 

October already! And the cold winter storms are about 
to sweep down upon the unwary and unexpecting! With 
possible exception of Florida, most of this country's (and 
Canada's) weather will soon turn about-face to make it 
not a lot of fun to perform antenna and other outdoor 
maintenance. You might as well grab your tool kit, steel 
wool, various kinds of tape and other materials and get 
those antennas ready for the long, cold winter. Gunky 
and corroded aluminum should be polished bright and 
smooth with medium steel wool. Iron & steel hardware 
should be wire-brushed clean of excessive bird 
droppings, rust and layers of summer residue. Replace 
aged or deteriorated coaxial cable. Tape it securely in 
place so that the wind doesn't blow it about. Raise the 
antenna another ten feet or so, if you can handle it. 
(There is no single greater determinant of radio station 
performance than height of the antenna above ground!) 
Tape all connectors to seal them from rain, snow and 
condensation. Tighten nuts & bolts; secure guy wires 
and give every exterior part of your station a good once¬ 
over visual inspection along with any needed corrective 
and preventative maintenance. I'll never forget one cold 
winter's day in the Colorado High Country when an 
element of my Moonraker 6 Directional Beam antenna 
blew off during a blizzard. Die-hard radioist that I am, 
my sons and I went out; cranked down the tower and 
reinstalled that element, all the while the temperature 
hovered around 0-F. Ask us how much fun that was! 


Thanks to those who have already renewed for 1993. 
Others may wish to look at the EXPIRES DATE on the 
mailing label and if it says Nov-1992, this would be a 
good time to renew before you get caught up in the 
expense and rush of the coming holidays. Subscriptions 
are easily forgotten and then easily procrastinated. If 
you profit from and enjoy the "WSR", you should plan 
for your renewal before it's too late. If your subscription 
is about to expire, we'll remind you next month in the last 
issue of 1992. As a reminder, we now accept 
MasterCard and Visa, if more convenient for you. 



I have learned the hard way that Radio Shack's bulk 
packages of switching diodes may NOW contain 
undesirable types in addition to the specified 
1N914/1N4148 types! I encountered a large number of 
flaky diodes that do not perform properly as isolation 
diodes! BEWARE! I built and installed an HB-232 
project tonight and fretted and stewed for hours, 
knowing damned good and well that I made no errors, 
but about half or 2/3 of the project functions wouldn't 
work! Finally in desperation, I began signal path tracing 
thru some diodes, and used a diode continuity test 
function on my multimeter, and lo! And behold! I saw 
where 3 of 8 diodes had the correct voltage drop of .58- 
.65 volts but five were as low as .35 volts! This is not 
typical of silicon switching diodes, and when replaced 
with the correct diodes, my project worked perfectly. 

I rechecked those funky diodes and they were good, but 
definitely NOT the 1N914/1N4148 desired type. In fact, 
the funky diodes had a part number on them as follows: 
SD 150 -1 . Good diodes out of the Radio Shack pack 
had various numbers that didn't mean anything to me, so 
there's no sense to repeat them here, but the above part 
number definitely has a forward voltage drop of 0.35- 
volts which is not good for most uses. 

If you purchased bulk packs of switching diodes from 
Radio Shack, catalog # 276-1122 or 276-1620, you're 
either going to have to test them before use or at least 
cull any with the part number SD 150 -1 . It is best to 
test them before use. Testing with a multimeter diode 
test function, the reading should equal or exceed 0.55- 
volts and be less than 0.68 volts. But what if your 
multimeter doesn't have a diode test function? It's still 
easy to test silicon diodes. Here's how: 

Connect a 1000-ohm resistor to the anode (unbanded 
end) of the suspect diode. Connect the (-) lead of a 1.5- 
volt battery (or power supply of 1.5 to 5 volts) to the 
cathode end of the diode (banded end), and connect the 
(+) lead of the battery to the free end of the 1000-ohm 
resistor. Now connect the (-) lead of a voltmeter to the 

connection of the cathode of the diode and the (-) lead of the 
battery (Point Y below). Connect the (+) lead of the voltmeter to 
the anode of the diode (Point X below) and read the corresponding 
voltage drop across the diode. It should read between 0.55 and 
0.68 volts. Discard the diode if the reading is more or less than 
that just specified! Here's a drawing of the test setup: 

Sooooo, if your electronic project is not perfect in all respects, you 
might just test for flaky diodes and replace any with the proper 
types! This is especially pertinent to the HB-232 
Scanner/Computer Interface where eight diodes are used for a very 
critical purpose. If you're having trouble with your HB-232, check 
those diodes! 


It's official: the Charley Test of the HB-232 Scanner/Computer 
Interface is over. Effective Oct 1, the price of the Kit is $169.95 + 
$5 S&H. However, the readers of another magazine were given 
until October 14 to take advantage of the special Charley Test 
price. We can do no less for readers of the "WSR". Accordingly, 
if you will mention your subscription number along with payment 
in full, the old price of $129.95 + $5 S&H is yours through October 
14, 1992 after which the new price shall be firm and fixed. 

The Charley Test of the HB-232 brought to light a lot of interesting 
perspectives by average hobbyists that weren't available to us in the 
Beta Test. Many changes to the software were recommended and 
we uncovered a few little bugs here and there. It is expected that 
the Release Version 1.0 of the HB-232 Program will be available 
on or about October 15, 1992. Charley Testers will be welcome to 
download the Release version from the Hertzian Intercept BBS at 
no cost, or to receive a disk of choice by mail for $5 S&H. 

One interesting change in the software utilizes the little known 
EEPROM on the HB-232's microprocessor chip and which 
eliminates the need to RESTART the scanner upon bootup. Other 
expected changes or enhancements will include a user color-menu, 
bug fixes, and better program documentation. 


The HB-232_C Tech Support Conference & the RADIO TEK 
general radio technical conference are now being carried by The 
HighSierra On-Line BBS at Lake Tahoe, CA, (916) 577-4438 
with capability to 9600-baud, 24-hrs a day. HighSierra On-Line 
joins the existing network consisting of the Feedhorn BBS , 
TriState Data Exchange and the Hertzian Intercept to make it 
easier to get technical support and the latest scoop on the HB-232. 
Welcome to SysOp Frank Gaude of the HighSierra On-Line, 
another BBS to tickle the gourmet palates of you modem freaks! 


From Alan Parlato. NY : Voila! A.I.E. successfully adapted my 
TCF-4 to run with a speeded up 16 MHz PRO-2006. Got both 
back last Friday (8/28) and have used heavily over the weekend. 
Unit works same as a regular TCF-4 with a 12 MHz PRO-2006. 

At my request, A.I.E. also changed the "default" to carrier squelch 
where before it defaulted to mute. Also the squelch triggering was 
adjusted to allow for quicker opening with lower levels of signal. 
For your info, the "FIFO" which they initially tried did not work. 
They finally programmed an entire new chip for the PRO-2006/16. 
Tony really went out of his way on this one. Too bad more 
companies don't give service like this! 

The cost for the rework was $500, but Tony offered to split with 
me in the hope that other 2006/16 owners will purchase a TCF-4 
with the new chip One of his customers saw my 2006 while it was 
there and I think you will be hearing from him for some mods. 

In the end, I agree with your assessment 100%. It turned out to be 
very pricey for me! But in a major metro area like NYC, the 
difference in scanning is like night and day with so many out of 
state co-channel users tying up the scanner. I'm very pleased. 
There's only a few minor "peculiarities", nothing major—a 
"learned" type of thing, as you say. It also works fine with your 
MOD-44 Data/Tone Squelch! 

It was a pleasure dealing with Tony. I'm sure the future will bring 
new and exciting units from A.I.E. Regards/Alan Parlato 

EDITOR'S REPLY: I am pleased for you, Alan. You're right 
that not many companies will work so intently to please one 
person. Of course, this can't be done unless there is reasonable 
hope for a larger return sometime in the future. A company that 
loses money or fails to profit is a company that doesn’t last long. 
I think in your case, A.I.E. performed a valued personal service 
and chalked some of the cost up to Research & Development, 
which any healthy, growing company must do. Either not enough 
R&D or too much of it has caused many a company to go down the 
tubes. I’ll betcha A.I.E. learned something from that ordeal and 
learning is worth something, no matter what. No doubt, the Hobby 
will prosper in part, thanks to you and to A.I.E. 73/Bill 

From Richard Allen. NJ : I decided to renew my subscription to 
the WSR for 1993 on the hope that the WSR will return to the 
format that the 1991 issues covered. As with other subscribers that 
you have quoted in the 1992 WSR, I believe too much has been 
devoted this year to computers. There is nothing wrong with a 
balanced publication but I subscribed for articles and information 
on scanners. I enjoyed the 1991 articles and have both of your mod 
books, but if I want information on computers. I'll buy a computer 
book, not a book or pub on scanners. By the way, I have and use a 
PC at home and at work. I also use mainframe computers at work 
where I maintain computerized accounting systems, so I am 
interested in computers. But the 1992 WSR has been overkill 
about computerized monitoring rather than balanced issues. Please 
consider a return to more info on scanners, product reviews, 
problem solving, mods, etc. Thank you, Richard Allen 

The "WORLD SCANNER REPORT" (c) 1991-2; V2N9: October, 1992; Page 2 

From Mike Flenz. WT : Your articles on computer-related items 
for scanning are starting to push me closer to finally "taking the 
plunge" and buying a computer. Keep up the articles and advice 
on what to look for in a computer to make it useful in radio-related 
applications. However, please keep room in WSR for the basic 
scanner hacking mods and how-to articles, and late-breaking news 
on new scanners and "no punches held" reviews. Mike Flenz 

From Paul Hagood. NM : Doc: Enclosed is my renewal for the 
WSR which is enough in itself to show my satisfaction. I was glad 
to see "The Computer Comer": as I'm not a computer owner now, 
but plan on buying one soon to go with the PRO-2006 I ordered 
yesterday from Marymac (800) 231-3680. (Bruce was on vacation, 

I spoke to Joe, $299 delivered, GREAT) All the computer info I 
can get will help, and I'll be using your info as my criterion for 
computer purchase.73/ Paul Hagood 

notice in our data base that you do not report owning a PRO-2004, 
2005 or 2006. I do see that the scanners you reported are not 
capable of being interfaced to a computer. While you may be very 
computer-literate, perhaps even more so than I, it is clear that you 
have no application for mixing scanners and computers. 
Therefore, your position is understandable. 

Mike & Paul, you each own a PRO-2006 in addition to other 
scanners. Pm sure it's no coincidence that you lean toward mixing 
computing with scanning. Your positions, too, are understandable, 
even if the HB-232 Interface is not among your interests. 

To ALL: There are several reasons why scanning and computing 
will be forever entwined and why the "WSR" will be required to 
support the topic. First and foremost, perhaps is underscored by 
the 1275 MHz of scanner spectrum which simply cannot be 
managed by the human mind. A simple computer and a half-assed 
Database Manager program will keep track of your scanner 
frequencies far better than your memory and a bunch of penciled 
or typewritten notes can handle. If your interests include only a 
few frequencies out of a small slice of the spectrum, then perhaps 
your memory and notes will do. But you are the minority. Most 
scannists are interested in a number of subjects and radio 
emissions in the spectrum between 25 MHz and 1300 MHz. Add to 
this, the preponderance of scanners with 200-400 channels and up 
not to mention the ease of memory expansions to as many as 
25,600 channels, and it becomes abundantly clear that only a 
computer can serve the hobbyist's best long term interests. It's like 
this: an engine mechanic may very well be absorbed by the magic 
and wonder of the modern internal combustion engine, but that 
mechanic has to be something of an appreciator of fine tools, as 
well. The modern scannist who wants to hear all there is to hear 
and to be on top of as much as possible has no choice BUT to 
integrate a little computing with his/her scanning. 

The "WSR" will respect and honor that genuine need, but I 
emphasize again that we will not become a computer magazine. 
You are right, Richard, there are enough computer 'zines out and 
about which do a better job than we ever could. We will, however, 
continue to explore the limits of scanning and let our Readers 
decide individually how high and how far they want to go. This 
means that computing and scanning are here to stay as a pair 

but. . we will also continue to explore the arts and sciences of 

the scanners, as stand-alone instruments. I don't seriously propose 
that we can develop a mod a month, though. Gee, I don't have the 
resources to do that. Imagine the "WSR" becoming the "Mod-A- 
Month Club"! Hardly! But we are going to continue to explore 
and exploit scanners for all they're worth, and throw computing in 
as a major ingredient. Frankly, 1 don't know how to do any 
different, but this means that there is going to be a little something 
for everyone as much as we can make it possible. 

From Jose Villafane. CT : Dear Doctor Rigormortis : I have an 
S-Meter on my 2005/6 and have conducted various tests with $400 
worth of antennas. After all these frustrating tests, I found two 
antennas to work best. One is the Scantenna from Grove 
Enterprises which is excellent on all frequencies from 25 MHz to 
1300 MHz. I can bring in stations 45 miles away without problem. 

The second antenna is a 7-element, 12 dB, Yagi Beam Antenna 
which is only for 800MHz and up. I didn’t believe the salesman at 
Transel Technologies when I talked to him, that I could receive a 
signal that many miles away. The antenna is 41 feet above ground 
and has been monitoring 800 MHz, 42 miles away for about a 
month now, with best reception after 8 pm, EDT. The best tool of 
all is the S-meter. Without that, I would have never known which 
antenna really works best. 

Back to the TCF-4; I have researched this and found that you 
cannot use the TCF-4 on PRO-2004/5/6 receivers without 
changing the chip inside to match each scanner; told this by the 
technician at A.I.E. Corp. I have a TCF-4 on my modified and 
sped up 2006, and have had no problem whatsoever with its 
performance. Everything is stated clearly on the instructions, step 
by step, and when I ran into a small problem with installation, I 
called the company and the technician guided me step by step with 
the procedure over the phone; so I can't understand why Alan 
Parlato from NY had problems with the RJ-45 jack when the 
instructions give the measurements as to where it can be installed. 

The hardest part was an error in the instruction sheet. It said D45 
but the correct one was D46 muting line, otherwise everything else 
was a piece of cake. I figured this was important information to 
share with other readers. 

I heard that you were a genius in CB radio a few years back. I'm 
starting to get into it a little bit and would like to know if you have 
any issues of the Eleven Meter Times & Journal left? Also, please 
send any additional info you may have on CBs & performance. 

I have a Cobra 21, 23 channel, peaked out to 10 watts. I also have 
a peaked out Realistic 40 channel, with a power mike, but like 
everyone else. I want to make it better. On my mobile, I'm using a 
K40 antenna and on my home base, an Antron-99 antenna, but I 
still want to make my performance better. When I start getting 
into trouble, that's when I know I've hit the limit with 
experimenting and that's the best part. Jose Villafane, CT 

EDITOR'S REPLY: I've heard pretty good things about the 
Scantenna, but I don't know too much about it. If I bought every 
little gadget and gizmo to hit the radio market, I'd be in the poor 

The "WORLD SCANNER,REPORT" (c) 1991-2; V2N9: October, 1992; Page 3 

house so fast all your back issues of the WSR would disappear 
before your eyes. My guess is, at the price, its a winner. I don't 
know and haven't heard ANYTHING about that Transel Yagi 
antenna. Please provide me with the mfgr's address & phone! 

Regarding Mr. Parlato's TCF-4 and the RJ-45 jack: I had installed 
it for him, but apparently it was defective from the factory. I had 
no way to test it at the time as he did not provide the TCF-4. I had 
done some other work for him and installed the TCF-4 jack 
incidental to the other work. I have worked with only one TCF-4 
and that only briefly. A.I.E. was supposed to send me one for 
evaluation, but I've heard nothing from them so far. 

Careful of that CB stuff, Jose! The FCC is getting badder and 
badder all the time. In just a few short years, 1 ha\’e seen the 
maximum fines raised from a limit of $500 to $2000 and now it's 
something like $15,000 per offense. Yes, I was a "master" of the 
Citizens Band during its heyday of 1972-1987. I got in on the 
ground floor in 1959 when the band was created and bailed out 
after FCC trouble came in '87-'88. I don't mess with the stuff 
anymore. Actually, the FCC first paid me a social call way back 
in 1981 or so. I won that little encounter, but they stayed zeroed 
in on me ever since, I suppose. Anyway, you ain't interested in all 
that ancient history. Radio performance is what's hot. 

And peaking up those little radios ain't hot, but not for legal 
reasons. Aw, for sure, you want that modulation to be as close to 
100% as possible and the AM carrier to be right on 4-watts, but 
man, there ain't a CB rig out there that can handle 10-watts with 
any quality! Besides that, it ain't the carrier power that gives a 
transmitter its performance; rather it's the TALK POWER or Peak 
Envelope Power. Far better to have a carrier of 4-watts or less 
and "forward modulate" to 12-watts than to have a 10-watt carrier 
and "downward modulate" to 4-watts. Yuk! Also, if you run a 
linear amplifier, it's far better to underdrive it for a lower than 
maximum carrier and let the modulation drive it to peak levels. 
Your signal punch ain't ever going to exceed peak anyway, so it's 
better AND cleaner to underdrive the carrier and maximize the 
modulation. There is no intelligence on the carrier; ONLY in the 
modulation. ONLY when you're sending CW is carrier power all 
that important. 

But what is important, in addition to TALK POWER, is the same 
hot stuff as what's important to SCANNER performance: the 
antenna. I've said it before and I'll say it again: if I had $1000 to 
spend on a radio station, I'd have a $10 radio and a $990 antenna 
system. There are THREE goshawful important factors to consider 
in your antenna system: (1) loss between radio & antenna, the 
lower the better, (2) GAIN (dB) of the antenna, the higher, the 
better, and (3) height of the antenna above ground level and 
nearby obstacles; the higher the better. This says it all in a 
nutshell, although books could be written to elaborate on the finer 
points. There are minor considerations for specific application 
antennas, like for scanners where bandwidth is very important. It's 
not terribly important for CB unless you're also a Free bander and 
happen to operate between 25.5 MHz - 27.995 MHz. Few 
antennas perform very well over THAT range without a little work. 

I edited/published the "ELEVENMETER TIMES & JOURNAL" 
between May, 1983 and April, 1988, when the FCC intervened to 

shut it down for good. We still maintain yearly sets of the back 
issues, an Index for which is available for $3.00, ppd. I'm not sure 
that much more can be said about how to get the most out of a CB 
station than in the EMTJ, which probably has something to do 
with why the FCC wanted it shut down. The EMTJ remains 
relatively current in technique and principle, but is certainly 
outdated where products and data are concerned, so I don't know 
how much value it can represent for you. Maybe you should tiy a 
yearly set before committing to all five years' worth. I have been 
away from the CB and Freehand scenes for so long now that I am 
not an expert anymore. Lots of products, radios and antennas 
have come and gone in the last four years. I can safely say that 
the best radios on the market today are still the Cobra 2000 GTL 
base and the Cobra 148 GTL mobile. These units have been in 
continuous production since 1978 and remain the best there is. 
There are some pretty hot EXPORT radios out and around, but 
these are of a different class and are grossly illegal, not to mention 
lacking in performance in the receiver department. If the 
Freehand piques your interest, both the Cobras can be illegally 
tricked out to operate between 25.5 MHz and 27.995 MHz. You 
still wind up with a hot little receiver, which to my way of thinking, 
is half the idea of communications in the first place. Transmitting 
is only the other half; no more and no less important than 
receiving. What's said is worthless if no one can hear or 
understand it. Hope this is helpful to you. 73/Bill 


Radio Shack has introduced another fairly decent scanner, the 
PRO-2026, basically a clone of the Uniden BC-760/950XLT and 
the Regency R-1600. In fact, the 2026 is very much identical to 
the Uniden/Regency versions with two exceptions: the 2026 has 
the 108-118 MHz radionavigation band, and cellular capability is 
MUCH easier to restore. Because of the close similarities between 
the PRO-2026 and the Uniden/Regency versions, we'll dispense 
with any further discussion and get down to the cellular mod as 
paraphrased from the September issue of " Monitoring Times": 

The 2026 has cellular frequencies deleted at the factory, but 
restoration is the easiest yet. Clip one marked wire! You need 
only a Phillips screwdriver and wire cutters. 

1. Remove the four side screws from the bottom cover. Pull the 
cover loose and set it aside. 

2. Facing the front of the 2026 and with the bottom side exposed, 
locate the small circuit board in the lower right-hand comer and 
find jumper L201. Cut L201 and separate the cut ends. 

3. Reassemble the radio which now has continuous 806-956 MHz 
coverage and 30 KHz search increments in the cellular band. 

EDITOR'S NOTE: 30 KHz Step Increments!? That's what was 
said in "Monitoring Times". The BC-760/950XLT will SEARCH 
the cellular bands ONLY in 12.5 KHz increments, so perhaps this 
is another favorable difference among these clones. For all 
intents and purposes, the PRO-2026 is clearly the better radio and 
at a lower price, too! I don't know about its hackability, but the 
2026 should have all the potential of the Uniden/Regency clones. 

The "WORLD SCANNER REPORT" (c) 1991-2; V2N9: October, 1992; Page 4 


The new PRO-43 looks better and better all the time. It's a real 
hot-dawg in the receiver department with triple conversion IFs and 
an AGC-controlled front end. A little work, less arduous than for 
the PRO-34/37, though more critical, will result in restored cellular 
performance AND limited performance in the 54-88 MHz bands. 
The detailed procedures for these two mods are paraphrased from 
the September issue of "Monitoring Times" as follows: 

SUGGESTED TOOLS: Fine tipped, medium power soldering 
pencil; desolder wick and/or a desoldering tool; forceps or pointed 
tweezers; small Phillips screwdriver; solder. 

1. Remove the battery, antenna and back cover (held in place by 
four screws). 

2. Remove the six screws holding the top circuit board in place. 
Carefully desolder the two antenna connections from the board. 
Bend the antenna ground tab fully up from the board. Carefully 
lift the board, unplugging the black connector at its base, and lay 
the board out of the way on its bundle of colored wires. 

3. Remove the two screws from the next board and lift it, carefully 
unplugging the white connector at the bottom of the board. Lift it 
up and lay it aside on its brown wire (which can be unplugged if 

4. Desolder and remove the metal shield from the final board, 
revealing the microprocessor; note the row of diodes labelled Dl- 
D5 above it. Only diodes Dl, D2 and D4 are present; assisted by a 
pointed tool, desolder and remove D4. (This restores cellular 
frequencies which will be searched in 30 KHz steps.) 

5. Resolder the removed diode carefully into the empty position for 
D-3 to extend low band coverage from 54 MHz to 88 MHz. 

6. Reassemble the scanner, paying particular attention to the 
alignment of the plugs. Test the radio by entering any frequency 
between 870-890 MHz (cellular) and 54-88 MHz (low band). 

PRO-43 DISCUSSION: The PRO-43 approaches the ICOM R-l 
in degree of miniaturization and high density electronics. There is 
a huge amount of electronics packed into the PRO-43 in a volume 
less than of its predecessors, the PRO-34/37. I have been rather 
successful with some interesting mods in these two, but I’ll not 
eagerly anticipate any serious hacks of the PRO-43. There isn’t 
much room inside this puppy to do anything real serious and I 
rather suspect that the cellular & Euro-VHF band restorations will 
be about the extent of it for most hackers. Memory expansion 
seems not likely at the present time, mostly because a "new" 
technique is used: a pair of NVRAMs (non-volatile RAM), 
probably EEPROMs, are used for frequency/channel storage. I say 
"new" because NVRAM is new to Realistic scanners. However, 
the Uniden BC-200XLT and BC-100XLT use NVRAM for 
storage, too. I'm not sure how well this concept will work out 
because NVRAM used to have a limit of the number of storage 
operations that could be performed before the chip went south. 
Perhaps this limitation has been overcome now. In any event, the 

more conventional memory expansion techniques will not work in 
the PRO-43, and I would be reluctant to try anything real esoteric. 
A speedup may be possible by changing out the 4.19 MHz Clock 
resonator, CX-1, with something a bit faster, but geez I don't know 
for sure if it would work. At 25-ch/sec, I'd be inclined to leave 
well enough alone. The PRO-43 draws about 85-100 ma of 
current, squelched, from a fully charged battery pack at 8.6 volts. 
This would suggest five to eight hours of operating time between 
recharges on a 600-mA/H pack. 

The PRO-43 is quite a power house with triple conversion IF's of 
609 MHz., 48.5 MHz and 455 KHz, thereby eliminating image 
interference. An AGC-controlled front end with four bandpass 
filters: 30-54 MHz, 118-174 MHz, 220-512 MHz and 806-1000 
MHz minimizes or virtually eliminates other internally generated 
interference, including overload, desensitization & intermod. 
Limited testing so far, along with a detailed review of the 
schematic diagrams leads me to suspect that the PRO-43 is perhaps 
the best handheld scanner yet the pure reception department. It 
may not have the full coverage of the AT-1000XC, Icom R-land 
the FairMate & Yupiteru Continental models, but as a VHF-UHF 
scanner, I think the PRO-43 will hold its own with the rest. You 
can hardly go wrong at $275 from Marymac, (800) 231-3690 

The "WORLD SCANNER REPORT" (c) 1991-2; V2N9: October, 1992; Page 5 



Relax! We won't talk much about computers THIS MONTH. 
Instead, let's take another look at databases and information 
management: two important subjects, whether or not you have a 
computer. All the the better, if you do, but those who don't know a 
computer from a pretzel will also benefit. Everyone collects and 
processes data and information. So what are the meanings of and 
differences between information and data ? Information is 
knowledge obtained from research, study or instruction. Data is 
factual information , as in measurements or statistics, and is a 
basis for reasoning, discussion or calculation. Differences are 
minor, but books embody information more so than data while 
charts, lists, tables and directories mostly contain data. 

Ok, now let's talk about scanner FREQUENCY record- keeping. 
Your shack probably contains lists or books of frequencies, one of 
which is POLICE CALL like Radio Shack peddles. They are all 
organized about the same way, typically: CITY, USER, MISC, 
FREQ, MISC, CALLSIGN. Now, lets build an example with four 
categories of data, the first in Channel Number order, ascending: 






162.550 MHz 


Los Angeles 


158.970 MHz 

Police - North Area 

San Diego 


121.500 MHz 

Aeronautical Emergency Worldwide 


026.915 MHz 



No problem to memorize and keep track of THIS data, but 
multiplied a hundred or a thousand times, then either you won't 
have a useful record system or else you'll burn the midnight oil to 
create a system. We'll make a good system with three more tables 
like the above, but each organized differently. Here's what I mean: 







026.915 MHz 

HF CB/Bootleggers 



121.500 MHz 

Aeronautical Emergency 



158.970 MHz 

Police - North Area 

San Diego 


162.550 MHz 


Los Angeles 







121.500 MHz 

Aeronautical Emergency 



026.915 MHz 

HF CB/Bootleggers 



162.550 MHz 


Los Angeles 


158.970 MHz 

Police - North Area 

San Diego 







162.550 MHz 


Los Angeles 


026.915 MHz 

HF CB/Bootleggers 



158.970 MHz 

Police - North Area 

San Diego 


121.500 MHz 

Aeronautical Emergency 


Look at all the trouble you'd have to go to just to keep tabs on and 
have quick access to the data contained in just four records. The 
more fields per record, the more ways that data has to be organized 
to make it useful. The preceding boxes can each be considered a 
file; each line, a record and each column, a field. Suppose you 
wanted to add a column or field for CALL SIGN and another for 
the type of RADIO SERVICE? Fine and dandy, but you'll have to 
make up two more boxes, one organized in call-sign order and the 
other in order of radio service. 

If you don't get down to the nitty gritty of organizing your data, 
and if you have any at all, it won't be accessible and you won't take 
advantage of it. Here, let me prove something to you: take any and 
all frequency directories that you might have! Oh, you use them, 
all right, but you sure as heck don't wear the pages out flipping 'em 
back and forth as the scanner races along, hitting one frequency 
after another! Directories are useful for making up lists of the 
frequencies to be programmed into your scanner, but they're not 
great for quickly looking up things as needed when you're actively 
engaged in scanning. Lists or maybe index cards organized along 
the lines of what's shown in the boxes on the preceding page are 
among the few alternatives available to you for reasonably quick 
and useful access to your data. No matter what, it takes a lot of 
work to set up a data retrieval system, and then if your system is on 
paper, it takes a hell of a lot of work to use and maintain it. Now, 
let me trip your trigger. 

Suppose you lived in an area, as I do, where something over 10,000 
frequencies are known to be in use? Imagine setting up five to ten 
columns of data, ten-thousand lines deep! You'd never do it with 
pen & paper or typewriter, that's for sure. But there is a way to do 
it, almost painlessly, depending on if you want to spend a few 
bucks and if you have a computer. There, I said that nasty word 
again. Sorry. But if you take your scanning seriously, and most of 
you claim you do, then you are missing out on a MAJOR facet of 
the Hobby if you don't have an efficient data retrieval system. 
Knowledge of what you're doing can be a cubic inch or a cubic 
mile, and either degree can be fun, but believe me, you're missing 
out on the best of the best without an information handling system 
to support your efforts. 

Ok, so you have taken a lot of time and trouble to organize and 
compile your scanner frequency records onto some neat, clean 
sheets of paper or a stack of index cards. You have just invented a 
"database". The distinguishing characteristic of a paper database is 
that YOU work for it more than it works for you. If you are a 
serious scannist, you'll just grit your teeth, roll up your sleeves, and 
commit yourself to the drudgery of maintaining paper records. 
After all, it's necessary. Unless you have a computer and a 
database manager, of course! 

Computer databases were recently introduced here in the "WSR" 
by Perry Joseph over a five-part series of articles. Mr. Joseph 
covered the "paper trail" all the way through computer databases. I 
let a couple of issues go by without further mention to soak the 
subject into you more astute readers. Now we have to continue the 
discussion to greater depths because data retrieval systems are 
going to be a VITAL sideline to scanning in the coming years. 
Here's why: there are at least fourteen scanners on the USA 
market that have 100 or more -programmable channels. That 

The "WORLD SCANNER REPORT" (c) 1991-2; V2N9: October, 1992; Page 6 

number will jump tills Fall or Winter when Uniden announces a 
new product line. As a matter of fact, there is really no technical 
or cost reason NOT to produce a seamier with 100-channels or 
more nowadays. Memory chip prices have really dropped in recent 
times. I think the era is coming when 50-100 channels will be 
considered "entry-level" and "journeyman" levels will be 400-1000 
channels. Over a year ago, I demonstrated die ease of slam- 
dunking 25,600-channels into die PRO-2004/5/6, so die main 
limitation now facing us is not the technology or cost of memory as 
it once was; rather the big obstruction now is HOW to program and 
maintain very large channel memories. While diere are at least 
three scanners on the market widi 1,000 or more channels, the 
manufacturers know good and well that darned few hobbyists are 
going to program that many by hand. It is no coincidence that two 
of these mega-memory scanners also are equipped widi RS-232 
interfaces for computer control & autoprogramming. 

Still, even with a computer, that many channels are not going to be 
effectively utilized without die aid of a database to go along with 
the computer. Therefore, I view database management and 
expertise of use to be a vital class-prerequisite before die market 
can be expected to venture forth widi much more in die way of 
high technology digital scanners. If die manufacturers perceive the 
hobby to be ready for them, there will be no reason to not make the 
offering. Whether they do or not isn't the prime focus here simply 
because I have shown the scanner community HOW to muldply 
memory by 2 to 63 in as many as ten different scanners. We can 
do it ourselves, but without the proper tools to work with, it hardly 
seems worth the while. In fact, the 400-channel PRO-2004/5/6 are 
a little too much to manage by hand ; or don't you agree? 

There are two ways to acquire the kind of data diat is best suited 
for both your scanning hobby and a computer database manager. 
The first way that you will want to master, but not udlize any more 
than necessary is copying frequency data from published books, 
guides, lists and your own old handwritten or typed data. It took 
me the better part of two years, on and off, to make a computerized 
file of 5,000 frequencies for the San Diego area! You really don't 
want to do MUCH of diis sort of diing, believe me! But you will 
always have to do some. 

The BEST way to acquire data for your computer is directly from 
another computer file! And there are several sources, the most 
common of which is frequency data from computer BBS's, friends' 
computer files and commercial frequency data sold on disk by 
companies and individuals. For example, you can buy the entire 
FCC database for something like $10,000, which averages to about 
$200 per state. Obviously, this is OUT for all but the most affluent 
companies and individuals. To the other extreme, more and more 
BBS's around the country have a sideline in scanning and 
encourage hobbyists to post their frequency lists on the board 
which become available for downloading by other patrons. A 
middle-of-the-road approach and possibly the best of them all has 
become available over the last couple of years! 

Grove Enterprises (publishers of "Monitoring Times Magazine") 
has been making available to hobbyists the FCC Database on a per- 
state basis! The Grove Database comes with a limited use database 
manager, sometimes called "FoxPro". Grove didn't look very far 
ahead with the present incarnation of the FCC Database and you 

can't do a hell of lot with it, as it comes out of the package, though 
it greatly exceeds POLICE CALL and other directories. 
Depending on your state, the Grove Database can be MASSIVE. 
For example, the California FCC Database contains 250,000 
records and requires about 38-Mb of hard drive space for 
installation, after which about 15-Mb is required to operate the 
database. The smallest Grove Database state is Vermont at 6,500 
records, requiring about 2-Mb of hard drive space for installation 
but then only 380-kb for operation. Once The Grove Database has 
been installed, the excess megabytes are not needed. An average 
of all states in the Grove Database comes to 42,000 records with 8- 
Mb required for installation and 2.5 Mb to operate. Your state will 
differ, of course, but this average is typical for the states of 
Louisiana and Iowa. Much LESS than average are Rhode Island, 
Delaware and District of Columbia, while Texas, Florida and 
Pennsylvania are much GREATER than average. 

I said that the Grove Database and its FoxPro manager are of 
limited use. That depends, I guess. If you are a beginner hobbyist 
or a computer neophyte, the Grove Database for your state will 
amaze and astound you, for at the touch of a key, you can quickly 
find frequency information for most any city, company or non- 
federal agency within your state. THAT might seem like the end 
of the world and WHAT ELSE could we possibly want to do with a 
database? True, it is awesome and for a time, you maybe won't 
want to do anything else with it. In any event, the Grove Database 
is about the only game in town for an exhaustive computer-based 
frequency record for your state. And the price is within reason. 

For advanced scannists and those computists who know their way 
around a database manager, the Grove Database leaves something 
to be desired. For example, every entry in the FREQUENCY field 
begins either with a "K" or an "M" to signify Kilohertz or 
Megahertz.. This can be unwieldy when using the data in your 
own database manager and/or to do something useful like 
AUTOPROGRAM your scanner through an Interface! I had to 
strip all these prefix letters off and move the decimal three places 
to the left for those with a "K" to get the frequency data into a 
usable format for automated programming. Another liability of the 
Grove Database is that there are no regional or county fields. This 
is a problem because most monitoring shacks can cover the 
majority of a county and perhaps an adjacent one, but you're not 
interested in frequency records upstate. So, for maximal use, you 
have to use the SORT and QUERY functions to select specific 
CITIES of interest within the area of coverage. Here in San Diego 
County, there are no less than 40-50 cities and towns that I had to 
manually cull from the Grove Database. Such an important data¬ 
base should also have a COUNTY field or at least fields for 
LATITUDE and LONGITUDE to permit the scannist to select 
records from ONLY within a desired area or region. 

Not to worry: at least two efforts are underway to develop user tools 
to overcome some of the deficiencies of the Grove Database. One 
of them is in Beta Test and can be downloaded from the Hertzian 
Intercept BBS from File Area #3 under the title, FIXDELGD.ZIP. 
DataFile, Inc., which brought PROSCAN and SHERLOCK to you 
is working on another promising tool called XPORTFCC, but we 
can't say much more at the moment other than it will grab data 
from the Grove Database and make it compatible for Auto- 

Programming the HB-232 Scanner/Computer Interface! 


The "WORLD SCANNER REPORT" (c) 1991-2; V2N9: October, 1992; Page 7 

The bottom line is that any reasonably serious scannist needs a 
computer and a database manager program to ease the drudgery of 
data acquisition and processing. The Grove FCC Database is a 
significant market entry for this purpose. Despite its shortcomings, 
the Grove Database comes with my highest recommendations as a 
major tool for the journeyman to master scannist. Call Grove 
Enterprises at (800) 438-8155 for info about your state. 

Now, back to the basics for a wrap up. A database is an organized 
accumulation of data. A database manager is a computer program 
that organizes and accumulates data. The Grove FCC Database 
comes with the database for your state AND a database manager 
program to handle it. I think you can order JUST the database at a 
reduced cost if you already have a dBASE (.DBF) compatible 
database manager program. There are all kinds, types and styles of 
database manager programs on the market, from the commercial 
Cadillacs of dBase IV and Paradox to shareware types such as 
PROFILE and FILE EXPRESS to freeware, although I don't know 
of any in the last category. Simply put, YOU need a computer and 
a database manager, and that's all there is to it. We will deal with 
the inner workings of database managers and how to use them in 
the coming months, and whether you're a raw neophyte or a 
grizzled expert, I rather suspect we'll have something to offer most 
everyone on this continuing and increasingly important subject. 

If you want to get a head start on preparing YOUR frequency data 
for use in a database manager program, then you should, without 
asking too many questions, start laying out your data in a logical, 
orderly manner, allowing for not only what you think you need 
NOW, but also for what you will need LATER when you become 
experienced and knowledgeable in the art and science of database 
management. Right now, you may be using a very elementary 
form of record keeping or data arrangement like that shown on 
page 6 of this issue. You need to allow for growth and for 
unknowns in the future. It is strongly recommend that you arrange 
your database as follows: (The NAME of the field is in <brackets> 
followed by number of characters or spaces needed in the field.) 


Field 1 



Field 11 



Field 2 



Field 12 

<Type Code> 


Field 3 



Field 13 

<Class Code> 


Field 4 

< Mode> 


Field 14 

<Regional Location> 


Field 5 



Field 15 



Field 6 



Field 16 

<Service Code> 


Field 7 

<Op Mode> 


Field 17 

<Call Sign> 


Field 8 



Field 18 



Field 9 



Field 19 

<Misc A> 


Field 10: <Time> 


Field 20 

<Misc B> 


Please hold questions for now but in brief, the AutoProgrammer of 
the HB-232 Scanner/Computer Interface requires the first six 
fields and ignores the rest. The HB-232's AutoLogger logs to the 
first 11 fields. Fields 12-20 are required of most any database just 
for the sake of the information value and to offer markers on which 
to quickly look up given records. For example, if you heard 
someone give a call sign, you could go right to your database and 
have it "look" for that exact one, or one close to it. Just because the 

first 11 fields are used by the HB-232 doesn't mean that YOU can't 
use them, too, even if you never own an HB-232 or other 
controller. Think about it: every one of these Fields with possible 
exception of Fields 8 and 11 are really very generic and useful. 

We're about to confront a major issue: a need for standard formats 
and layouts of scanner frequency databases! It is often very tedious 
and time consuming to convert data in one layout to that of 
another. In fact, there are people who make a very good living 
doing just that! I'm not going to fight to the death over the matter, 
but my proposed Scanner Frequency Database format and layout is 
proposed as a starting standard for the scanner hobby. So far, I 
have seen not less than a dozen scanner frequency databases 
concocted for various and sundry purposes and while each has 
merits over the rest, none combine it all, and none are really 
complimentary to or compatible with the rest. We need standards 
to foster order and sense out of chaos and disarray. Imagine some 
people driving on the right side of the road and others on the left. 
The scanning hobby might fare best to promote a standard layout 
and format for frequency files to facilitate the sharing and use of 
data! It is a lot easier to manipulate and arrange database info 
than I have let on here, but lack of a standard format serves only to 
keep the average hobbyist from advancing. The state of the art of 
existing technology coupled with the power of the computer, even a 
cheap one, now offers the hobbyist more latent power than ever, 
but it will remain dormant until we come up to speed on databases. 

Coming articles in this comer will focus on database management 
and how to make the most out of what you have to work with. If 
you will begin to organize your scanner frequency data along the 
lines as proposed herein, or even CLOSE to it, you'll gain a head 
start with some momentum for the coming New Age of Scanning! 


Take a quick look at Radio Shack's 10-segment bargraph LED, 
#276-081, page 124 of the new 1993 catalog. Nice, but no cigar. 
Now, imagine something similar, but which comes as interlocking 
1, 2, 3, 4 or even 5 LEDs in one bargraph block and which are 
made so that you can combine any number of segments AND 
colors to meet your own special needs! I received a sample that 
consisted of a 5-segment green block; a three segment yellow block 
and a 2-segment red block. After I slid them together, the size and 
looks were similar to the RadioShack bargraph above, except in the 
stated colors for a much more attractive block especially suited for 
S-Meters, Center Tune Meters, etc. For more info about these neat 
LEDs, contact: LEDTRONICS, 4009 Pacific Coast Hwy; 
Torrance, CA 90505. (310) 549-9995 or Fax (310) 549-4820. 

ANOTHER NEW LED COMES! Well, they have been out for a 
while at about ten bucks a pop, but BLUE LEDs are now becoming 
better known and available. The price has dropped to the extreme 
upper limit of reason at $2.80 ea at DigiKey (800) 344-4539. Blue 
LEDs are now available in both T-1.75 and T-l sizes. The forward 
voltage drop of a blue LED is higher than typical LEDs at 3.0 to 
3.4 volts, and they can't withstand a reverse voltage any greater 
than 5.0 volts, so you have to be careful or lose your money in a 
wisp of smoke. Current drain runs about 30-ma. The wavelength 
is 470-nm and the intensity is about 4-13 med, depending. 

The "WORLD SCANNER REPORT" (c) 1991-2; V2N9: October, 1992; Page 8 




_ - mi DDLS LUO- , 

/ Leave alons! 





LUG-5 FOR \ f 

svJircH >- x . 

Don' rmess ojith ’em’. 

Refer to Back Issues of the WSR for the 
specific Squelch Gate pin in your scanner. 
V1N4 & V1N9 have this Info for a 
number of other scanners. In all cases, 
the ATRS uses the Squelch Gate Signal to 
trigger the Remote Relay. 


IC-2 Pid 13 . 
iN Fko-zokH ^ 
PRo-lOOS - 

ISCl! ‘-LL 

O-I-mF Capacitor 

_____- shield - 




I ^jAJPor 



y^N 3164 > 
\ NPN , 

SPDT PetAj- 12-VOLT 

raw'd shack aie-zHI 

SreREO „ 


Neither control wire to tape recorder's Remote Jack can be grounded 
to the scanner! This method calls for use of the L & R lugs of a 1/8” 
stereo phono jack with nothing connectred to the ground lug! In my 
Rook #2, R-f was spec'd to beqf^k; change it to 10-k for best results! 

fcftQuMD 1 1 
A/c con /veer // 

til to */Y 





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+12 to +/V\/ 





'rz Z7$-od£ 

1 To 

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—1—> Remre 



The "WORLD SCANNER REPORT" (c) 1991-2; V2N9: October, 1992; Page 9 

PHONE^_ } _ 


Career or 

| Any Single Copy, your choice 
J 1991 (1st Year, Jan-Nov/Dec) 

| 1992 (3rd 6-mo, Jan-May/Jun) 

J 1991-2 (All the above) 

J Half Year 

| One Year 
I Two Years 

METHOD OF Check M.O. Visa MasterCard COD (Add $7.50) | Amount Enclosed | 

USA $$ Amounts 

1 ea $ 4.00 $_ 

10 ea $23.00 $_ 

5 ea $15.00 $_ 

15 ea $35.00 $_ 


5 ea $15.00 $_ 

10 ea $25.00 $_ 

20 ea $45.00 $_ 

PAYMENT » _ _ _ 

Credit Card 

Acc't No:_-_ 

Name of 

Issuing Dank_ 

Signature Required (for credit card purchases) 



$_ | HOBBY RADIO BUYER'S DIRECTORY $14.95 ppd surf $_ 

| Amount Charged | SCANNER MOD HNDBK, Vol-1: $17.95 + $4.00 S&H $_ 

$_ | SCANNER MOD HNDBK, Vol-2: $17.95+ $4.00 S&H $_ 

| HB-232 Interface Kit: $169.95 + $5 S&H; Foreign $10 S&H $_ 

_| * Canada US$5 S&H; Other Foreign US$7 S&H; extra for Air Mail 

| CALIF RESIDENTS ADD 7.75% Sales Tax to ALL purchases! $_ 


I am asked this all the time, so let's do a rundown on TAPE 
RECORDER circuits and what it takes to add a TAPE REC jack to 
just about ANY radio, be it a scanner, shortwave, auto or table-top 
special. It's easy and you don't hardly have to think about it. 

Modern tape recorders are very sensitive instruments and it doesn't 
take much of a signal to get a very good recording. Too much 
signal, though, makes for an overdriven recording that can sound 
flat and distorted, not to mention NOISY. Many hobbyists are 
given to recording from the headphone jacks or external speaker 
terminals of a radio. Yuk! There is a much better way to record 
the audio signals from almost any kind of a radio and it's easy. All 
you need is an RCA phono jack. Radio Shack 274-346 or 274-852; 
a bit of miniature shielded coax or microphone cable, RG-174U or 
Radio Shack 278-510, and a coupling capacitor, 0.1-uF/16v of 
about any type, though tantalum is preferred, RS #272-1432. 

All radios detect and amplify the RF signal from the antenna to a 
suitable level before conversion or "detection" to audio. The audio 
signal strength at the point of detection is more than adequate for 
modern tape recorders, but this point will physically vary from one 
radio to the next and is impossible to describe as a general rule. 
On the other hand, there is one place in EVERY radio where this 
low-level, clean, wideband audio signal is present and where even 
if you're blind in one eye and can't see out of the other, you'll still 
be able to readily locate: THE VOLUME CONTROL! 

Virtually all volume controls have three lugs, though there may be 
three more, if the receiver is stereo, and two or more may be used 
in the ON/OFF switch section. We will focus on monaural radios 
where only three lugs are used for the volume section. Do not be 
concerned with the switched lugs for power on/off. Rather, find 
the three lugs that are close together and typically along the rim or 
side of the Volume Control. One end lug will be connected to 
receiver ground via the shield of a mini coax feedline, or it may go 
directly to a nearby ground pad via a short jumper wire. Identify 
that grounded lug before proceeding. 


Next there is a MIDDLE lug which feeds the volume-controlled 
signal to the audio power amplifier. Forget the MIDDLE lug; 
we're not interested in it. That leaves the remaining end lug which 
carries the detected audio signal into the volume control. At that 
point, which we shall call the 'high" lug, solder one lead of the 
above mentioned capacitor. If the capacitor is polarized, then 
solder the (+) lead to the "high" lug of the Volume Control; 
otherwise, either lead of the capacitor can go here. 

Next, drill a 1/4" hole at some convenient location on the radio's 
chassis. Install the RCA Phono jack in this hole with a ground lug 
& tab over the threaded shaft of the jack on the inside of the radio. 
Now cut a piece of the mini-coax or mike cable to length to fit 
neatly between the Volume Control and the new RCA jack. 
Prepare the ends of this cable by peeling and separating the shield 
part from the center conductor part. Solder the center conductor of 
one end of this cable to the center lug of the new RCA jack. Solder 
the center conductor of the other end of this cable to the free lead 
of the capacitor at the Volume Control. Solder the shield of the 
cable to the GROUNDED end lug of the Volume Control and 
solder the shield at the other end of this cable to the ground lug on 
the new RCA jack. That's it; you're done and all ready for some 
fine tape recordings, and probably much better than you presently 
get from any headphone and external speaker jacks. Refer to the 
drawing(s) on page 9 for full visual impact of how easy this 
modification is to perform to most any radio. 


Also on page 9 are drawings (with minimal discussion) of several 
varieties of Automatic Tape Recorder Switches that can be adapted 
to most any scanner or other radio that uses a SQUELCH circuit! 
If you want to know the full scoop on AutoTapeRecorderSwitches, 
you'll need to see Vols 1 & 2 of my Scanner Modification 
Handbooks . but the circuits here are plenty good enough for those 
already acquainted with them and/or who know a little about 
electronics with minimal guidance. In case you don't know, an 
AutoTapeRecSwitch triggers the Remote function of a recorder 
when a scanner signal is present and Pauses at all other times. 

1991-2; V2N9: October, 1992; Page 10 



PO BOX 262478 

SAN DIEGO, CA 92196-2478 



f Antenna Maintenance Before Winter Sets In: Hurry! 

+ Renewal Time is Approaching; Check Mail Label 
+ WARNING: Radio Shack's Diode Packs May Contain Wrong Types! 

+ I IB-232 Scanner/Computer Interface Update; New BBS Joins the HB-232 Network 
+ Reader Update: ATE's TCF-4; Readers on computers; Reader tests some antennas 
+ Realistic PRO-2026; Cellular Restoration & More! 

+ Realistic PRO-43; Restore Cellular & 54-88 MHz; Circuit discussion & Block Diagram 
+ The Computer Comer: Basics of Databases & Data processing; Grove FCC Database 
New LEDs Available for Hackers!; Also BLUE LED's now reasonably priced! 

-t Add a Tape Recorder Jack to Most Any Radio; more Automatic Tape Recorder Switches!